Prevalence of Оmega-3 fatty acid deficiency in different age groups

The objective. Assessment of the prevalence of Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency in patients of different age groups in the Russian Federation.

Patients and methods. The study included the results of 1351 patients aged 1 to 91 years who did not receive medications with Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In 2013–2017, these patients underwent testing to determine the levels of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Omega-3 index) – an important marker of metabolism – reflecting concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids to total fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes. Determination of “Omega-3 ” index was performed by gas chromatography–mass spectrography using a Thermo Fischer Scientific Trace 1300 Series chromatograph equipped with Thermo Fischer Scientific ISQ-mass spectrometer. Analysis of fatty acid composition in erythrocyte membranes was performed as corresponding methyl ethers after transesterification with sodium methylate [5]. Fatty acid methyl esters were identified proceeding from analyte retention time, characteristic carbon acid ester ions and the use of mass-spectral NIST® database (National Institute of Standards and Technology).

Results. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency as determined by the Omega-3 index was found in 68.5 % of patients. The most marked deficiency was noted in children aged 0 to17 years, in whom extremely severe deficiency (Omega-3 index below 4%) was diagnosed in 17% of cases, and moderate deficiency (Omega-3 index from 4 to 8%) – in 30.4%. In the age group of 18-44 years severe deficiency was observed in 6% of patients, and moderate in 20.7%. In the age group of 45-59 years severe deficiency was found in 7.3% of patients, and moderate in 28% of patients. In the age group of 60-74 years severe deficiency was diagnosed in 6.9% of patients, and moderate in 25.1%. In the age group of 75-90 years severe deficiency was noted in 8.3% of patients and moderate in 41.7% of patients.

Conclusion. The study have clearly demonstrated an extremely high prevalence of Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency in all age groups, the most severe deficiency has been found in children and adolescents under 18 years of age, 47.4% of adolescents have metabolic and hypoxic disorders associated with Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency, and they are in a risk
group of developing not only metabolism-associated diseases but also reproductive disorders (infertility, miscarriage, foetal malformations).

Key words: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, Omega-3 index, hypoxia.

For citation: Kalinchenko S.Yu., Solov’ev D.O., Avetisyan L.A., Belov D.A., Paramonov S.A., Nizhnik A.N. Prevalence of Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency in different age groups. Vopr. dietol. (Nutrition). 2018; 8(1): 11–16. (In Russian).
DOI: 10.20953/2224-5448-2018-1-11-16