Comparison of two low-calorie-restricted diets on lean body mass loss in patients during weight loss

Objective. Obesity plays relevant pathophysiological role in the development of health problems, arising as result of complex interaction of genetic, nutritional and metabolic factors. A dietary approach might significantly help prevent and treat the metabolic imbalance, and a correct life style is necessary to preserve health status and wellbeing. We conducted a dietary intervention case-control randomized trial, to compare the effectiveness of influence of two nutritional protocols on body composition: a very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (VLCKD) and very low restricted-calorie diet (VLCD).

Patients and methods. Twenty-five healthy subjects (18–65 years old) gave informed consent to participate in the interventional study and were evaluated for their health and nutritional status, by anthropometric, and body composition evaluation. 

Results. All groups had a significant decreased in BMI and lost weight, but the reduction was greater in the VLCD (Δ%= –7,98; p = 0,00) compared to VLCKD (Δ% = –6,99; p = 0,00). After VLCD a significant decrease of total body lean of the trunk (Δ% = –7,31), android lean body distribution (Δ% = –11,85), gynoid lean body distribution (Δ% = –5,47), and total body lean (Δ% = –8,46) were highlighted (p < 0,05). After VLCKD, no significant differences in body lean of the trunk, body lean distribution (android and gynoid), total body lean were observed (p > 0,05).

Conclusion. The results of this study demonstrate that a very low carbohydrate diet, taken without a specified restriction of caloric intake, is effective for weight loss, and indicate that there are important, interesting, and poorly understood effects of severe carbohydrate restriction that warrant further investigation as we seek effective therapeutic strategies to manage the epidemic of obesity.

Key words: obesity, very-low-restricted calorie diet, ketogenic diet, carbohydrate, lean body mass, sarcopenia. 

For citation: Marchetti M., Barrucco S., Marchetti М., Zeigarnik M., Kaganov B., Marchetti M. Comparison of two low-calorie-restricted diets on lean body
mass loss in patients during weight loss. Vopr. dietol. (Nutrition). 2016; 6(1): 13–19.

DOI: 10.20953/2224-5448-2016-1-13-19