Effects of a low-calorie diet with inclusion of Protein meal replacements on the anthropometric parameters and the body composition indices in women with abdominal obesity
The objective. To study the effect of a low-calorie diet with inclusion of protein meal replacements on the anthropometric parameters and the body composition indices in women with abdominal obesity.
Patients and methods. In accordance with the volunteer study protocol, 40 women with abdominal obesity were hospitalized to the Nutrition Institute Clinic, of them 30 were enrolled into the study, and for 2 months (14 days in hospital settings and 1.5 months in outpatient settings) received a low-calories diet (1500 kcal/day; 50% of carbohydrates, 20% of proteins and 30% of fats in the total energy value of the ration) with inclusion of two protein meal replacements – a protein shake Formula 1 (with 6 flavours) and a protein powder Formula 3 of Herbalife's weight loss programms.
Results. The decrease of the body weight during the 14 days of diet therapy was 3.9 kg (4.0% of the initial values) and 6.9 kg (7.17%) during the 2-month outpatient period. BMI decreased by 1.5 kg/m2 (4.3%) in hospital settings, and by 2.4 kg/m2 (6.94%) during the outpatient period. A statistically significant decrease of WC (from 102.1 ± 1.86 cm to 99.3 ± 1.75 cm in hospital settings and to 97.0 ± 1.84 cm – outpatient settings), HC (from 117.9 ± 2.3 cm to 115.3 ± 2.25 cm in hospital settings and to 113.3 ± 2.22 cm – during the outpatient period) and the WC/HC ratio was noted (from 0.95 ± 0.014 to 0.93 ± 0.013 in hospital settings and to 0.9 ± 0.012 – during the outpatient period). The fat mass decreased from 40.9 ± 2.1 kg to 38.8 ± 1.99 kg in hospital settings and to 36.8 ± 2.03 kg by the end of the 2nd month of outpatient observation. The decrease of the body fat mass was associated with a significant reduction of total body water – from 40.3 ± 0.83 l to 39.0 ± 0.82 l in hospital settings and to 38.7 ± 0.85 l by the end of the 2-month outpatient observation. As was noted, by the end of the 2-month outpatient observation the dress size decreased in 26 of 30 women, and often it was a 2 size decrease (in 50% of women enrolled into the study).
Conclusion. A 2-month inclusion of protein meal replacements in a standard low-calories diet has been associated with improvement of the anthropometric parameters (average body weight decrease by 7.2%, BMI by 6.9%, WC by 5.0%, HC by 3.9% and the WC/HC ratio by 5.3%), positive dynamics of the body composition indices (average decrease of fat mass by 10.0% and total body water by 4.0%), and with a decrease of dress size in women with abdominal obesity.
Key words: anthropometric parameters, protein meal replacements, low-calorie diet, obesity, body composition.