Specificities of the nutritional status in patients with Parkinson’s disease

Objective. To study specificities of the nutritional status in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD).

Patients and methods. The basic group comprised 36 patients with initial manifestations of PD stages 1–2 (according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale), who did not receive anti-parkinsonism therapy (mean age – 58.4 ± 4.0 years). The control group included 40 patients, who did not differ from the basic group by its gender composition and body weight (mean age – 51.2 ± 5.7 years). BMI in the basic group of patients with initial signs of PD was 28.45 ± 0.98 kg/m2, in the control group – 29.22 ± 0.27 kg/m2.

Results. Diets of men suffering from PD do not differ from the control group as regards their calorie value. The food behaviour of women is characterised by a higher calorie value (+16.5%, p < 0.05). Excessive intake of fats has been noted (women – +20%), especially of saturated fats (women – +49.6%) along with a smaller percentage of unsaturated fatty acids, especially the -3 group (women – –11.8%, men – –8.3%). The percentage of total carbohydrates is higher in women (+19.1%). A significant deficit of the intake of dietary fibers has been noted in both men and women (–23.1%, –39.1%, respectively). Also, excess sodium intake with foods and low intake of potassium and magnesium have been found in women (+39.3%, –23.3% and –28.1%, respectively), excess calcium intake in men (+26.6%). A tendency to lower intake of vitamins has been found in both men and women.

Conclusion. Patients with PD, especially women, have statistically significant differences in consumption of nutrients both in comparison with normal physiological needs and with the control group of the same gender, age and BMI. It is necessary to ensure isocaloric diets, reduce intake of saturated fatty acids, increase consumption of -6 and especially -3 PUFAs, dietary fibers, vitamin A and niacin, increase the percentage of «slow» carbohydrates and reduce mono- and disaccharides. It would be also desirable to increase intake of magnesium and potassium, and decrease the excess intake of calcium and iron.

Key words: Parkinson’s disease, metabolic disorders, nutritional ration.