A complex assessment of disordered nutritional status in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Objective: assessment of disorders of nutritional status in patients with type 2 DM with the use of modern methods of nutrimetabolomics. A complex assessment of nutritional status was performed in 80 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the majority of the examined patients unsatisfactory compensation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism was noted on the background of enhanced caloric value of home nutrition rations (on the average, 2960 ± 121 kcal/day) and excessive intake of fats (41.7 ± 0.8% from total caloric value of the ration). Body mass index in the group averaged 38.9 ± 0.7 kg/m2. In assessment of the body composition by the method of bioimpedance measurement increased levels of fatty tissue were detected (on the average, 46.2 ± 1.5 kg) that positively correlated with the levels of insulin, С-peptide, leptin, adiponectin and insulin resistance index. According to the findings of indirect calorimetry, a decrease of specific metabolic rate was noted (by 27.0 ± 1.3% on the average) in the presence of a negative interrelation with body mass index, body fat mass and leptin levels in blood serum. These studies are indicative of considerable deviations of the indices of energy expenditures from normal values in patients with type 2 DM, which are characterized by a lower specific metabolic rate on the background of a higher rate of carbohydrate oxidation and reduction of fat utilization indices.

Key words: type 2 diabetes mellitus, nutritional status, actual nutrition, basal metabolism